“Tuberculosis is the main infectious enemy of mankind”

About the disease
Tuberculosis most often affects the organs of the respiratory system (mainly the lungs and bronchi), but other organs, such as bones and muscles, may also be affected. Because of this, there are two main types of tuberculosis: pulmonary tuberculosis and extrapulmonary tuberculosis.
Pulmonary tuberculosis can be asymptomatic for a long time and be detected accidentally, during fluorography or chest X-ray.

Symptoms of tuberculosisare

coughing or coughing with sputum, possibly with blood;
prolonged temperature rise to 37-37.5 degrees;
rapid fatigue and the appearance of weakness;
decreased or no appetite, weight loss;
excessive sweating, especially at night;
the appearance of shortness of breath with little physical exertion.
One of these symptoms may occur, or a combination of two or three symptoms. If at least one of the above symptoms persists for three weeks, it is necessary to urgently consult a therapist or a phthisiologist.
With early detection and proper treatment of tuberculosis, infected people stop spreading the bacteria and can be cured.

How is the disease transmitted

The main threat to the population is pulmonary tuberculosis, in which the path of transmission of the disease is airborne. A healthy person can become infected from a tuberculosis patient when he coughs, sneezes, or comes into contact with him.
One patient with an open form of pulmonary tuberculosis releases ten billion bacteria in 24 hours, which, when coughing, spread through the air and infect others.
Infection from consumption of dairy products from animals with tuberculosis is insignificant.

Who can get tuberculosis?

Anyone who has had contact with tuberculosis patients can get sick with tuberculosis. The closer the contact was, the greater the risk of disease. As a rule, the development of tuberculosis is facilitated by a decrease in the body’s defenses: severe illnesses, malnutrition, stressful situations, HIV infection. Preschool children and the elderly are especially susceptible to tuberculosis. However, not all people who have had contact with a tuberculosis patient get sick. The immune system is responsible for protecting the body and the occurrence of a disease. The development and progression of tuberculosis is the result of a weakened immune system of the body.

Factors contributing to the development of tuberculosis:

The main factor is a decrease in immunity, the causes of which may be:
Stressful situations;
Insufficient and improper nutrition;
Poor living conditions;
Drug addiction;
Chronic lung diseases.

What to do to avoid getting tuberculosis

A healthy lifestyle!
Do not smoke – smoking weakens the local protection of the respiratory tract, reduces the immunity of the body as a whole;
Do not abuse alcohol – it reduces the overall protection of the body;
Eat well;
Be examined regularly – in Kazakhstan, mass preventive fluorographic examinations of the population are carried out for the early detection of tuberculosis. The examination is free of charge.

Published: 25.06.2024 12:02